By Steve Webber, Jan-Anders Karlsson (auth.), Dr. David Raeburn, Dr. Mark A. Giembycz (eds.)
Building at the latest titles within the "Airways tender Muscle" sub-series, the 6th quantity explores physiological and pharmacological strategies within the lung in vivo. a number of the animal versions to be had for learning the bronchospasm and irritation linked to human bronchial asthma are completely reviewed by way of the world over acknowledged scientists. particular chapters specialise in the issues of administering medicinal drugs to animal airlines, the mechanics of assessing lung functionality within the types, and describe intimately the species used, from rodents to primates. using genetically altered animals, a space of specific curiosity to molecular biologists, can also be thought of intensive. This up to date and commonly referenced paintings will end up worthwhile to pharmacologists, physiologists and different organic scientists in any respect degrees in academia and within the pharmaceutical industry.
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Extra info for Airways Smooth Muscle: Modelling the Asthmatic Response In Vivo
5 ,um) generated by an ultrasonic nebulizer (de Vilbiss Pulmosonic) as the result of the inclusion of organic co-solvents (ethanol, glycofurol or polyethylene glycol 200) at concentrations ofup to 10% v/v. However, nebulizer output was markedly reduced if the co-solvent concentration was increased to 20% v/v. It is possible to generate an aerosol from a drug suspension if the solid drug particles are sufficiently small to be encapsulated in vehicle droplets. If required, the droplets can then be evaporated to leave dry particles by passing them through a drying chamber or tube which, if the drug is heat-stable, can be heated.
Laitinen A, Laitinen LA. Vascular beds in the airways of normal subjects and asthmatics. Eur Respir J 1990; 3(12): 658s-62s. McDonald DM. The ultrastructure and permeability of tracheobronchial blood vessels in health and disease. Eur Respir J 1990; 3( 12): 572s-85s. Hill P, Goulding D, Webber SE, Widdicombe JG. Blood sinuses in the submucosa of the large airways of the sheep. J Anat 1989; 162: 235-47. Mariassy AT, Gazeroglu H, Wanner A. Morphometry of the subepithelial circulation in sheep airways.
One disadvantage of ultrasonic nebulizers is that much of the energy from the vibrating crystal is converted to thermal energy which may denature heat-sensitive drugs or alter the nebulizer's efficiency as the drug solution heats up. 3. Dry Powders If a suitable solution of a drug cannot be produced, it can be administered to animals as a formulation of micronized solid drug (with a respirable partic1e size). Indeed, in the treatment of human airways disease, drugs are commonly administered in this way.
Airways Smooth Muscle: Modelling the Asthmatic Response In Vivo by Steve Webber, Jan-Anders Karlsson (auth.), Dr. David Raeburn, Dr. Mark A. Giembycz (eds.)