By Xiaodong Chen, Clive G. Parini, Brian Collins, Yuan Yao, Masood Ur Rehman
Chapter 1 basics of GNSS (pages 1–19):
Chapter 2 primary concerns for GNSS Antennas (pages 21–40):
Chapter three satellite tv for pc GNSS Antennas (pages 41–53):
Chapter four Terminal GNSS Antennas (pages 55–80):
Chapter five Multimode and complicated Terminal Antennas (pages 81–110):
Chapter 6 Terminal Antennas in tough Environments (pages 111–148):
Chapter 7 Human consumer results on GNSS Antennas (pages 149–180):
Chapter eight cellular Terminal GNSS Antennas (pages 181–206):
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Extra info for Antennas for Global Navigation Satellite Systems
Maximising the received signal using LP or elliptically polarised (EP) antennas requires the receiving antenna to be correctly aligned relative to the direction of propagation. Using RHCP antennas at the satellite and at the receiver means that no polarisation alignment is needed. Secondly, a CP wave is capable of combating Faraday rotation in the ionosphere. If an LP wave is adopted, the signal becomes EP or even CP after passing through ionosphere, so an LP antenna on the receiver can only pick up a fraction of the incoming signal.
It is considered to be clockwise because, from the point of view of the source, looking in the direction of propagation, the ﬁeld rotates in a clockwise direction. An LHCP wave is deﬁned as if the left thumb points in the direction of propagation while the ﬁngers curl along the direction of the E ﬁeld vector rotation. This convention is also applied to elliptical polarisation. 2. 2 Different types of plane wave polarisations: (a) Linear polarisation, (b) Circular polarisation and (c) Elliptical polarisation.
The properties of the antenna also depend on the permittivity of the dielectric medium on which the spiral is supported. The antenna comprises usually two conductive spiral arms, extending outwards from the centre. The antenna may be a ﬂat disc, with conductors resembling a pair of loosely nested clock springs, or the spirals may extend in a 3D shape like a tapered screw thread (a conical spiral). The direction of rotation of the spiral, as viewed from behind, deﬁnes the sense of polarisation. Additional spirals may be included to form a multi-spiral structure.
Antennas for Global Navigation Satellite Systems by Xiaodong Chen, Clive G. Parini, Brian Collins, Yuan Yao, Masood Ur Rehman